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It is written that in life com- 
edy and tragedy walk hand 
in hand. 

Not unmindful of the ter- 
rible privations of the men 
who conquered .the North 
in the mad rush for gold, we 
believe Charlie Chaplin has 
caught the spirit of mirth 
that made life a jest to the un- 
sung heroes of the snows, 
and that you will laugh with 
him in this product of two 
years of endeavor by the 
master-comedian of all time. 

Sid Grauman 

THor/rt Premiere Sngaqement of 

IN » 


Written and Directed by Charlie Chaplin 
as presented at 

Grauman's Egyptian Theatre 


Cast of Characters 

The Lone Prospector Charlie Chaplin 

Big Jim McKay - - - Mack Swain 

Black Larson Tom Murray 

Jack Cameron Malcolm Waite 

The Girl, Georgia ------- Georgia Hale 

Hank Curtis - Henry Bergman 

Miners, Dancehall Girls and Habitues, Inhabitants, Officers, 
Assayers, Ships Officers, Passengers, Reporters, 
Photographers, etc. 

Locale: The Alaskan Northwest: During the days of the 

Gold Rush 

Copyright 1925, by Charles Chaplin 

Studio Staff for Charlie Chaplin 

Associate Director Assistant Director 

Charles F. Reisner H. dAbbadie dArrast. 

Technical Director 
Charles D. Hall 
Cinematographer Cameraman 
Ronald H. Totheroh Jack Wilson 

Edward Manson 
General Manager ...... Alfred Reeves 

Musical Score by Carli D. Elinor 

V \ \ \U 

A Sid Grauman Presentation 

Mr. Grauman presents 
tiie colorful prologue 





TRIBUTE; to "The Gold Rush" by the 
prominent stars of the Moving Picture 
Industry which was made especially for 
the Premiere Performance. 

-Over T U R E - Grauman's Egyptian 
Orchestra. Gino Severi, Conducting. 
Julius K. Johnson at the Mighty 
Egyptian Organ. 

Land of the Midnight Sun 

1 — Entry of the Lonely Prospector 

2 — Meeting with the Eskimos 

3 — Eskimo dance 

4 — Pastimes of the Eskimos 

5 — Charlie's dream 


The Spirit of the Frozen North 
As Beauty Depicts the Moods of the 

E — BALLOOON DANCE by Lillian Powell 

F — Festival of Dancing Ice Skaters 
G — The Monte Carlo Dance Hall 
H— Charlie's Awakening 


Prologue Staged and Presented by 
Ralph P. Borst, Assistant to Mr. Grauman 

Costumes for " The Spirit of the Far North" designed and 
supervised l>y Adrian, executed by Rosa Rehn. 
Ice skating ballet executed by Fanchon. 




The Producer 

The Exhibitor 

SO much has been said of Charlie Chaplin's genius and 
of his early discovery, that it may not come amiss to 
relate here, as from one who has been close to him, 
something concerning his discovery. 

As a matter of absolute fact, — Charlie Chaplin was 
discovered by the little children of all the world. He 
was not financially embarassed when he entered pictures, 
— a young man just over twenty years old. He had 
several thousand dollars, a considerable sum for a young 

actor. Besides, he 
has been well known 
i n England a n d 
America as a juve- 
nile comedian for 
several years. 

Another fact, 
known by but a few 
people, Chaplin was 
the biggest man on 
the comedy lot from 
the time he made his 
first comedy. Mack 
Swain, the giant 
comedian, called the 
''fun niest villian" 
HB m for his portrayal of 

WJ^k Big Jim McKav in 

"The Gold Rush," 
was one of the first 
men to appear with 
1 ' Chaplin in that seem- 

charlie chaplin jnglv long-ago per- 

iod. It is from no 
less authority than Swain that Charlie Chaplin, from the 
very first day, divined and went beyond what was expected 
of him. Within a short time after his entry into pictures, 
the directors complained to the powers-to-be that Chaplin 
wanted his own way and would not "take direction." It 
was great talent trying to assert itself and climb out of 
the embryo into the uniform of the greatest actor in the 
world. He was conscious of ability in his soul, as great 
talent ever is. 

Charlie's greatest problem in his early picture days was 
his struggle with the comedy makers to allow him to 
portray his parts and ideas as he felt them. He fought to 
wear the baggy trousers and the battered hat. He wanted 
from the first to instill ideas, humor characterization into 
his work. When, after much effort, he was allowed to 
do this he found himself, and then the children found him. 
They soon greeted him as the crowned King of Laughter. 
And within eighteen months' he was world-famous and 
earning a million a year. 

That Charlie Chaplin was born to be a great actor is 
obvious — and no one man "discovered" him at all. He 
first discovered himself, and the children responded. The 
intellectuals came later — as they always do — trailing 
behind them their second-hand approval. 

THE genius of Sid Grauman, mastercraftsman of 
the prologue, has made his name a watchword 
among showmen the world over. Nowhere outside 
his magnificent Egyptian theatre in Hollywood is at- 
tempted the spectacular stage presentations that presage 
each great film production he introduces to the public. 

To him and his illustrious father, the late D. J. Grau- 
man, goes the credit of originating the elaborate and 
scintillating preludes to the masterpieces of film art found 
worth of presenta- 
tion in his most 
beautiful of play- 

Los Angeles had 
the good fortune to 
be chosen by the 
Graumans, senior 
and junior, as the 
location of endeavor, 
and a trinity of 
downtown cinema 
palaces as well as 
the m a g n i fi c ient 
Egyptian attest to 
their achievements. 
The Egyptian by its 
architectual beauty 
of original design as 
a playhouse and the 
magnificence and 
completeness of its 
appointments has 
spread the fame of sid grauman 

Grauman through- 
out the world. Few world tourists visit Los Angeles 
without including on their itinerary an inspection of this 
most beautiful of theatres. 

Curiously enough in connection with the present at- 
traction, Sid Grauman himself, as a lad in knee trousers, 
felt the urge of adventure when the Alaskan dash, the 
basis of the story of "The Gold Rush," occurred. 

He stowed away on an Alaskan-bound steamer, and, 
after enduring the hardships that fall to the lot of those 
who go as a supercargo, landed safely in Nome, where he 
became a newsboy to earn a livelihood. 

He obtained the agency for San Francisco newspapers 
and when an inbound steamer brought a consignment of 
papers, hiked on foot around a ten-mile zone about Nome 
to earn his first stake, a thousand dollars. The news- 
papers brought $1.50 a copy and purchasers were eager 
to get them at the price. 

It was from his actual experience in the snow-swept 
Northland that Grauman conceived the scintillating spec- 
tacles that greet you in his elaborate prolouge to "The 
Gold Rush." 


THE Lone Prospector, a valiant weakling, seeks fame 
and fortilne with the sturdy men who marched 
across Chilkoot Pass into the great unknown in the 
mad rush for hidden gold in the Alaskan wilderness. 
Lonely, his soul fired by a great ambition, his inoffensive 
patience and bis ill-chosen garb alike make him the target 
for the buffoonery of his comrades and the merciless rinors 
of the frozen North. 

Caught in a terrific blizzard, the icy clutches of the 
storm almost claim him when he stumbles onto the cabin 
of Black Larson, renegade. Larson, unpitingly, is thrust- 
ing him from the door back into the arms of death when 
Fate, which preserves 
the destines of its simple 
children, appears in the 
person of Big Jim 

The renegade is sub- 
dued by McKay in a 
terrific battle, and the 
Lone Prospector ond 
his rescuer occupy the 
cabin while their un- 
willing host is thrust 
forth to obtain food. 
Starvationalmost claims 
the two until a bear in- 
trudes and is killed to 
supply their larder. 

The storm abated, 
the two depart, Lonely 
for the nearest town 
and McKay to his hid- 
den mine, the richest 
in Alaska. Mcka\ 
finds the renegade in 
possession of his prop- 
erty and in the battle 

that ensues falls under a blow from a shovel wielded by 
Larson, who flees from the scene to be swept to his death 
in an avalanche. McKay recovers consciousness but has 
lost his memory from the blow. Meanwhile Lonely 
arrives in one of the mushroom cities of the gold trail. 
Seeking companionship, he timidly invades the dancehall, 
center of frivolity of the village of the snow. His atten- 
tion soon becomes fixed on Georgia, queen of the dancehall 

She is the most beautiful creature he has ever seen. It 
is love at first sight, but nevertheless poignantly genuine. 

In his pathetic adoration, he braves the gibes of the 
dancehall roughs to feast his lovelorn eyes. But Georgia, 
ignorant of the heart-yearnings of our hero, has her 
affections for the time being centered on Jack Cameron, 
Beau Brummel of the camp. 

In a moment of pique with Cameron, she chooses 
Lonely as the least pretentious figure in the hall to dance 
with her. Lonely, believing his affections reciprocated, is 
transcended into a seventh heaven of bliss. 

Georgia, out larking with her girl companions of the 
dancehall, accidentally chooses the cabin of Lonely as a 



backstop for a snowballing contest. Hearing the excite- 
ment, Lonely opens the door to receive a snowball in the 
face. Apoligies follow and he invites them into the cabin. 
After much good natured banter, the girls accept an 
invitation to have New Year's dinner with Lonely the 
following night, thereby giving him a tremendous thrill 
of anticipation. 

But when the appointed hour arrives, his guests fail to 
put in an appearance to share the meal he has prepared 
for them. Falling asleep he awakens near midnight with 
the cruel realization that he has been the object of a cruel 

He walks disconsol- 
ately to the dancehall, 
there to see Georgia in 
vivacious conversation 
with his rival, Camer- 
on. The lover's quar- 
rel of the night before 
cold, Georgia writes 
Cameron an endearing 
note of apology. 

As a last cruel jest, 
Cameron, hands him 
the endearing note from 
Georgia. believing it 
written for him. the 
unhappy liner starts 
feverishly searching the 
dancehall for the girl, 
when Big Jim McKay, 
his memory partially 
restored, enters. Big 
Jim's only thought is 
to find the location of 
the cabin in order to 
locate the lost mine. 
He recognizes Lone- 
ly and seizes him, shouting to lead the way to the 
cabin and they both will be millionaires. But his 
lovelorn friend at this moment discovers the girl on 
the balcony, and breaking away, darts up the stairs to 
embrace her and declare his love to the astonishment of 
the girl, as well as the crowd. Linceremoniously dragged 
from the hall by McKay, Lonely shouts to Georgia that 
he will soon return and claim her, a millionaire. 

A year has passed and Big Jim and his partner, Lonely, 
are returning to the States surrounded with all that 
wealth can provide. Georgia has disappeared and 
Lonely's search for her has been all in vain. 

Fhe fame of the strike of the partners has spread and 
newspapermen board the liner for interviews. Lonely 
good-naturedly consents to don his old habiliments for a 
news photograph. Tripping in the companionway, he falls 
downstairs into the arms of Georgia, on her way back to 
the states as a steerage passenger. 

The reporters sense a romance and ask who the girl is. 
Lonely whispers to Georgia, who nods assent. Arm in 
arm, they pose for pictures, while the reporters enthusias- 
tically exclaim: "What a great Story this will make!" 


ALASKA: A land of mystery and fabled wealth, 
which drew the multitude ever on and on, in rain- 
bow promise to the uttermost recesses of its wilder- 
ness and desolation. Tens of thousands who gave, and 
still are giving, of their best years, to a struggle which 
has no parallel in the annals of human history. That far 
pilgrimage from civilization to the frozen soli-tudes of the 
Alaska Northwest, harked with the life blood of men 
whose shallow graves dot the bleak hillsides of many a 
mountain pass. The long trail whose drama stretched 
from the shores of Puget Sound to the Arctic Ocean. 

"The Gold Rush": A Chaplinesque conception of the 
Alaska which con- 
fronted the early gold 
seekers is presented in 
the opening scenes, 
and are merely shown 
as atmospheric intro- 
duction to this com- 
edy classic. These 
scenes represent an ex- 
penditure of upwards 
of $50,000, and were 
made in the High Si- 
erras of the Cali-for- 
nia Rockies. 

The famous "Chil- 
koot Pass," the gate- 
way to the Klondike 
gold fields, has been 
suggested by Chaplin. 
The rugged camps of 
the pioneers are pic- 
tured, cluttering at 
the base of frozen 
cliffs. To make the 
pass, a pathway 2300 
feet long was cut 
through the snows, 

rising to an ascent of 1000 feet at an elevation of 9850 
feet. Winding through a narrow defile to the top of 
Mount Lincoln, the pass was only made possible because 
of the drifts of eternal snow against the mountainside. 
The excact location of this feat was accomplished in a 
narrow basin, a natural formation known as the "Sugar 

To reach this spot, trail was broken through the big 
trees and deep snows, a distance of nine miles from the 
railroad, and all paraphenalia was hauled through the 
immense fir forest. There a construction camp was laid 
for the building of the pioneer's city. To make possible 
the cutting out of the pass, a club of young men, profes- 
sional ski-jumpers, were employed to dig steps in the 
frozen snows at the topmost point, as there the pass is 
perpendicular and the ascent was made only after stren- 
uous effort. 

With the building of the mining camp, and the pass 
completed, special agents of the Southern Pacific Railway 
were asked to round up twenty-five hundred men for this 


scene. In two days a great gathering of derelicts had 
assembled. They came with their own blanket packs on 
their backs, the frayed wanderers of the western nation. 
It was beggardly on a holiday. 

A more rugged and picturesque gathering of men could 
hardly be imagined. They arrived at the improvised 
scene of Chilkoot Pass in special trains ; and w T hat is more, 
special trains of dining cars went ahead of them. It was 
thought best to keep the diners in full view of the dere- 

To have seen them going through the "scene" was a 
study in the fine qualities of human nature. They trudged 

through the heavy 
snows of the narrow 
pass as if gold were 
actually to be their 
reward, and not just 
a day's pay. To them, 
what mattered ; they 
were to be seen in a 
picture with Chaplin, 
the mightiest vaga- 
bond of them all. It 
would be a red-letter 
day in their lives, the 
day they went over 
Chilkoot Pass with 
Charlie Chaplin. 

The comedian him- 
self played the role of 
Director General. He 
was here, there, and 
everywhere, giving in- 
structions, leading the 
men, and on occasions 
mixing with them 
throughout the day. It 
was possibly the most 
successfully handled 
mob scene ever assembled before a movie camera. This 
shot of Chilkoot pass will bewilder and charm the most 
blase movie fan. During the filming of this great pano- 
ramic scene the most disappointed man in the whole outfit 
was the doctor. Not a man was hurt during the entire 
stay on this location far above the timber line. 

This is remarkable from the fact that these men, un- 
trained to "mushing" through deep snows and climbing 
over frozen ledges, were compelled to take many chances, 
and carrying huge packs on their backs and hauling sleighs 
and other equipment over steep, precipituous places, it is 
miraculous that this successful scene was not marred by 
serious accident. 

On the last day of the location, one of the "sourdoughs" 
in some way got a slight cut on the side of the head. Then 
the doctor was happy. Witli great enthusiasm he started 
winding bandages around the victim's head, and when the 
physician had finished, his patient had the appearance of a 
desert sheik, as the mass of gauze resembled a turban. 


AFTER months of preparation, following the com- 
pletion of "A Woman of Paris," the dramatic 
■ sensation of the age, written and produced hy 
Charlie Chaplin, the filming of "The Gold Rush" was 
started on February 7, 1^24, with the final scenes taken 
on April 16, 1925'. 

Over five hundred thousand feet of film was used in 
the photographing. Then came the arduous task of cut- 
ting and editing, the perfect synchronizing of scenes and 
action, one of the secrets of Chaplin successes. 

Almost two years passed while Charlie Chaplin worked 
on this production. During that time he was practically 
a hermit, recluse to all, save his studio associates. 

The factory system of movies, and the consequent 
mediocrity as an art, have in Charlie Chaplin an example 
of the opposite production method in this dramatic com- 
edy, "The Gold Rush". It has been made with the art- 
ists necessary leisure. It was never 

restricted by definite 
schedule or time clock 
methods, but inspir- 
ed by Chaplin with 
a passion for perfec- 
tion as his only task- 

9 * ) 

When Chaplin works, he burrows into solitude. He 
broods, agonizes, sweats comedy and its dramatic counter- 
balance from his soul. He creates by inspiration. When 
the mood is upon him, he toils feverishly. Then he may 
rest and brood again for weeks — and always when the 
productive throes are upon him he is sensitive to the 
thumpings of the outside world. 

Charlie senses, and expresses more than any other en- 
tertainer, the close affinity between the ludricrous and the 
pathetic; his comedy springs from within, more as a mat- 
ter of mood than circumstance. Usually he needs very 
little story structure to his comedy, but in "The Gold 
Rush" he has created a rugged story in which laughter 
: urges from the spectacle of a valiant weakling; facing 
perils w hich strewed the paths of the early gold seekers 
with skeletons. 

In the role of a hardluck sourdough, dressed in the 
baggy pants, the floppy shoes, the old derby and cane 
of early association, Charlie twists the sufferings of 
the Alaskan pioneers into strange commingling of 
humor and tragedy. He thaws fun from a frosty, 
forbidding background. The treatment is wholly 
unlike anything hitherto done, and strikes a 

Ir.ew note in photo dramatics. 
"The Gold Rush" contains comedy, 
drama, satire, melodrama, farce — not to 
forget a little slapstick — and everything 
else in the way of entertainment all 
rolled into one big ten reeled film. 



as seen by SlD GRAUMAN 

THE Chaplin studio is differentiated from most 
other habitats of the photoplay by the use of the 
word itself. Essentially it is a studio — not an ag- 
gregation of buildings where scores of superiority-com- 
plexed individuals turn out animated pictures simultane- 
ously. One set at a time is used ; the rest of the stages 
are dark. The handful of people clustered around the 
two inseparable cameras might appear to the average film 
magnate to be doing anything but making a screen epic. 

There are present neither mobs nor megaphones. There 
is a minimum of noise. The cameramen, property men, 
electricians all speak amongst themselves in hushed whis- 
pers when they speak at all. 
For the most part they look 
into the center of the set in 
much the same way as the 
Sunday flock looks at its pas- 
tor. For there gesticulates 
Charlie Chaplin. 

The set: A little cabin in 
Alaska. The bare wooden 
walls re-echo the emotions of 
two starving men, one almost 
insane from want of food, 
the other passive in submis- 

"Great! Now just once 
more for luck." 

The speaker is the little 
man in very baggy trousers 
and a funny bobtailed coat. 
He is wearing one huge, 
turned-up, long worn-out 
shoe; his other foot is untid- 
ily wrapped in sacking His 
collar and shirt are affinities 
in dirt, and his face is the 
composite mirror of mighty 
souls who have gone before 

Strange how that queer 
get-up is unable to wipe the 
pathos from his eyes, how ut- 
terly those ragged pants and trick mustache fail to rob 
his brow of the Beethovian sweep. One looks at the 
patched coat-tails and thinks of Hamlet; hears the voice 
of the jester and thinks of a cardinal. He acts and di- 
rects the scene, conceives and considers that Chariot might 
equally have become a poet or a prime minister, an actor 
or an archbishop. 

Opposite him on the set is Mack Swain, a gentleman 
almost counterbalanced in avordupois and art. A long 
time ago he used to wear a silk hat and answer to the 
name of Ambrose. It was in those leaner days that 
Charlie met him ; custard pies then were theirs, both to 
give and receive. 

Now they have gone back farther than the era of 
custard pies, for the present scene brings memories of the 


gold rush to those, that is, who suffer memories. Charlie 
and Mack are miners starving in the cabin, Mack in 
particular, because he's making an awful lot of noise 
about it. Also, it appears, he is temporarily insane with 
the hallucination that Charlie is a chicken, and that such 
a chicken would still the void in his aching tummy. 
Whereupon he stalks Charlie with intent to kill, only to 
be outwitted by the nimble Charlie and the advent of a 
huge black bear. 

Only three scenes were taken in the entire afternoon, 
but the proof that Mr. Chaplin is without doubt the 
hardest working individual in Hollywood is that each 

scene is shot at least twen- 
ty times. Any one of the 
twenty would transport al- 
most any director other than 
Charlie; he does them over 
and over again, seeking just 
the shade to blend with the 
mood. And his moods are 
even more numerous than his 

"Just once more — we'll 
get it this time!" It is his 
continual cry, ceaseless as the 
waves of the sea. And each 
additional "take" means just 
three times as much work for 
him as for anyone else. 

Perhaps in the middle of a 
scene when everything seems 
to be superlative, he will stop 
the action with a gesture, 
"Cut" — he walks over to a 
little stool beside one of the 
cameras and leans his head 
upon the tripod. The cam- 
eraman stand silently beside 
their cranks; everyone virtu- 
ally holds his breath until 
Charlie jumps up with an en- 
thusiastic yell : 

"I've' got it, Mack, you 
should cry: 'Food! Food! — I must have food!' You're 
starving and you are going to pieces. See — like this!" 

Mr. Swain, a veteran trooper, watches intently as 
Charlie goes through every detail of the action. 

"Let's take it!" Charlie suddenly exclaims — "What 
do you saw Mack ?" 
"Sure," answers Mack. 

And again the scene is re-enacted and recorded in cel- 
luloid by the tireless cameras. 

Charlie Chaplin calls his present picture, "The Gold 
Rush," a comedy. This because he has on his comedy 
make-up, and because his principal purpose for the time 
being is to make people laugh. But Charlie is drama 
personified ; he couldn't possibly create a chuckle without 
shading it with the accompanying tear, for so utterK is 

he the artist that modulated contrast is instinctive. 

Clow ns, buffooning around the throne, have ruled em- 
pires. Hut a clown upon the throne would be incongru- 
ous where he other than the one and only Charles. "A 
Night in a London Music Hall." "A Woman of Paris." 
Between them a metoric career comparable with nothing 
in the cinema sphere, even as Mr. Chaplin is himself 

comparable with no one else in it. 

To the man on the street Charlie is darling of the 
gods ; as a matter of fact, one surmises that the gods, far 
from fondling him, have dealt him many a smack in the 
eye. An hour or two on his set shows that only his 
infinite energy and his mental agility have enabled him 
to laugh at them. 


FEW persons realize the quantities of material that 
goes into the making of a picture of the magnitude 
of "The Gold Rush," or the army of artists required 
to work these huge amounts into the ingenious sets 
that feature a ten-part production such as Chaplin's 
great comedy drama. 

More than 500 skilled workmen specially trained in 
scenic art labored to produce the settings used in the 
Chaplin studio during the two years of the filming of 
the nicture. On the studio lot in Hollywood was con- 
structed huge mountains that were visible at a distance 
so realistic that many strangers in the cinema capitol 
were deceived by the artistry of the technical heads of 
Chaplin's organization. 

Glistening in the sunlight, the artificial snowcapped 
peaks gave the appearance that a huge section of the snow- 
crowned summit of some Sierra mount had been trans- 
ferred to Hollywood, and hundreds of visitors made 
pilgrimages to the neighborhood for a closer view. 

These snow mountains were employed for close-up 
views and as backgrounds for scenes not practicable to 
take in the real snow banks themselves. Even with the 
large force of workmen employed, weeks were required 
to fabricate these settings. 

Only one production at a time occupies Chaplin's atten- 

tion, and t^e entire studio was given over to the settings 
used in "The Gold Rush" until the last foot of film had 
met the master comedian's approval. 

Lumber to the extent of 239,577 feet, comprised the 
framework ; chicken wire of 22,750 linear feet with 
22,000 feet of burlap spread upon it formed the cover- 
ing for the artificial mountains used in the pano- 
ramas of "The Gold Rush." It required 200 tons of 
plaster, 285 tons of salt and 100 barrels of flour to arti- 
ficially produce the ice and snow. In addition, four car- 
loads of confetti was employed in producing blizzard 
and snow scenes. 

The tools used, including 300 picks and shovels, would 
constitute a year's stock for a large hardware store. 
Othr>r miscellaneous items of hardware that entered into 
the picture include 2.000 feet of garden hose, 7,000 feet 
of rope, four tons of steel, five tons of coke, four tons of 
asbestos, 35 tons of cement, 400 kegs of nails, 3000 bolts 
and several tons of other smaller articles. 

These items include only the material used in the 
studio sets and do not include the great quantities of 
supplies transported to the summit of the High Sierras, 
where a very large proportion of the scenes in the picture 
were taken, with a great army of extras and the neces- 
sary artisans in attendance. 

Clhc lovers 



GoMseekcrs i n 
*~Mk)ot p ass 

Onihe^ to 
hidden gold- 

en ruse to obtain needed sustenance. 

mnlAiliiii i i i i* 


By WALTER B. MACADAMS, Director of Ancient Arts 

THIS is an edifice whose design and decorative beauty 
reaches out from the great dim past and enthralls 
with its mystery, exhilarates with its bold symbol 
designs, creates a serene restfulness with its gorgeous soft 
color harmony, and grips the deepest interest by awaken- 
ing the realization of the life of the golden past it repre- 
sents, ages and ages old, and re.-ealed in the light of a 
newer day. 

The architecture of this theatre adheres strictly to the 
principles of the Ancient Egyptian, with the modifications 
necessary to adapt the building to its modern use. The 
fore-court entrance duplicates the pylons of the ancient 
palaces and the columns of the 
lobby are the lotus-bud columns 
of the architecture of the 

At the entrance to the fore- 
court hang the checkered ban- 
ners of red, yellow and blue of 
the Temple of the Sun. on the 
masts of which, perch the golden 
hawks, symbols of Horus, the 
Sun God. 

Heirarchy of the Ages 

The pictorial reproductions on 
the east court wall, are the 
images in color of the Priestess 
of the Temple of 1 si s at Philae; 
an attendant priest of the God 
Osiris; the Goddess Nepthys, 
attendant of I sis, w ith headdress 
bearing the all-seeing eye, sym- 
b o 1 i c of the predominance of 
Truth and Good ; and Thoth, 
w ith the Ibis head, God of Arts, 
Science and letters. Next is 
Nefertari, a queen, the Ankh in 
her hand, the sign of Everlast- 
ing Life, and lastly, the young 
Sun God Horus, signifying by his attitude that he is the 
extoller or voice of the Gods known as Kheron. 

The fountain is presided over by duplicate images of 
the winged I sis and her Ka, or soul self. The great pic- 
torial panel of the west wall near the lobby contains re- 
productions from the Temple of Thothmes III, of the 
Haw k-Headed God, Sokaris, who was Ruler of the Land 
of the Departed, known as the fields of Ialu, teaching the 
young Pharoah to uphold the principles of the various in- 
signia of his standard. Also the Tapir-headed God, Set, 
of the underworld, instructs the young Pharoah in the 
arts of war, which is represented by the position of the 
figures in handling the bow and war arrow. 

The hieroglyphic inscriptions occupying the large space 
above the figures, make these foregoing explanations and 
give a few of the young Pharoah's titles, such as "Son of 
the Sun" and "The Reincarnation of Life Everlasting." 
The Court of Rameses II 

The east court, through the arch to the left of the box- 
office, is replete with interesting and beautiful symbols of 

antiquity. The long wall to the left chronicles the events 
in the life of Rameses II. First comes Rameses in his 
war-chariot, preceded by his mighty Man of Valor and 
accompanied by his pet lion, overhead the Vulture of 
Lower Egvpt, protector of Kings, wings its way. In front 
of them is the standard and royal insignia of Rameses 
bearing such hieroglyphic inscriptions as "Ramesu-AIerri- 
Am'en, Ramessu-Merri-Maat, Son of the Sun, etc. These 
figures are perfect reproductions enlarged to scale and in 
the work of reproducing them, every effort was made to 
adhere strictly to even the ancient methods of handling 
the brush, that all lines would perfectly duplicate the 
ancient artist of the Court of 

Following these figures are 
the victorious soldiers of Ram- 
eses marching over the van- 
quished Asiatic enemy ; then the 
kneeling Hapi, God of the Nile, 
pouring out the blessings of life- 
giving libations in the Land of 
Kem, which is Egvpt. 

Thoth, God of Arts, Science 
and Letters, sometimes referred 
to as the Recorder God, is 
shown recording the life of 
R a m e s es and counting on the 
fronds of a palm stem the events 
in his life, etc. 

The Shrine of the Xile 
Next are seen captives of war 
in slavery under the Egyptian 
taskmasters. They are drag- 
ging a gigantic sphinx of black 
basalt to a temple of Rameses. 
A slave pours oil before the sled 
runners, another claps his hands 
to aid the slave gang in keep- 
ing step and pulling together. 
The Shrine of the Nile is the last picture here, and 
represents the Shrine at Biggeh, with the god, Hapi, in- 
side the cliff rocks, from whence the waters of the Nile 
were at that time supposed to come forth. 

Standing guard over this scene is the gigantic colored 
statue of the Jackal-headed god, Anubis, worshipped as 
the keeper of scales of justice, and weigher of the souls 
of the departed against the feather of truth to determine 
their elegibility of entering the nether-world. 

This scene, lit with many lanterns, backed by the moon- 
glow through the trees, presents an enchanted vista. 

Beneath the lofty portico supported by the massive lotus- 
bud columns, twenty doors of antique green-gold bronze, 
decorated with symbols of Isis and Orisis, open into the 
broad velvet carpeted lobby, extending in a semi-circle the 
full width of the theatre auditorium. Thru archies of 
antique masonry are located the ladies' lounge room, rest 
rooms and various offices. In the ladies' lounge room the 
bas-relief image in antique gold of the grimacing little 
household god, Bes, asserts his right as mirth creator. 



Tall ornamental lamps carved in the form of great clusters 
of lotus and papyrus flowers, emit soft tinted light reveal- 
ing a richness of appointment found only here. 

The mens' lounge and smoking room displays still 
another attractive example of Egyptian art — A group in 
color consisting of figures of the ram-headed god, Khnum, 
known as the "Moulder of Man," together with attend- 
ant priest, priestess and Hathor, the Goddess of Love and 
Beauty, and accompanied by bird figures representing the 
souls of the departed, are all engaged in paying obeisance 
to, and with offerings are supplicating at the shrine of the 
Nile for a bountiful season of plenty in the land. Stand- 
ing wooden figures of slave girls, hold trays in their hands 
for the convenience of smokers. 

The wonderful floor coverings of deep red are bordered 
with woven-in hieroglyphics and designs sacred to the 
Bull Apis, god of Virility and life. Everywhere about are 
heavy chairs and other articles of Egyptian furniture, 
all perfect examples 
of a high order of 
handcraft and dupli- 
cating those pieces as 
used in the palaces 
of the Pharoahs, and 
bearing the authentic 
decorations of Egyp- 
tian art. 

Through velvet cur- 
tained arches opening 
directly off the lobby, 
the vast auditorium 
presents an awe inspir- 
ing spectacle, unmatch- 
ed in gorgeous effect 
and unrivalled in 
beauty and historic in- 

Overhead the dome 
of a celestial sky is set 
with the myriads of 
blazing jewels of the 
heavens, in pure gold, 
over which radiates a 
colossal sunburst of 
golden iridescent color- 
ful rays emanating from the blazing sun upheld by a 
gorgeous winged scarab, the symbol of reincarnation, and 
which in turn is surrounded by attendant decorations 
sacred to the Scarab God, including the Serpent at 
Euraeus, symbol of the intellect, all in bas-relief burnished 
in silver and colors and pure gold. 

The Splendor of Antiquity 

Thus, bathed in the twilight of an ancient world, sur- 
rounded by a scene of awe-inspiring splendor, breathing 
the fresh purified air that bears the faint elusive perfume 
of the real lotus, cherished in the palaces of antiquity, 
one is held wrapt by a near view of a gigantic temple 
ruins on the plains of Thebes, backed by the desert azure 
sky, where a solitary star, the Star of the East, still lingers. 


This wonderful painting occupies the entire great front 
curtain and is framed on either side by the magnificent 
carved Egyptian columns of stone, which are covered with 
pictorial representations in Egyptian color of the various 
gods, goddesses and sacred symbols of the temple of Amon. 
The great beams of the proscenium arch supported by 
these columns, tell in Egyptian pictured story form, vari- 
ous religious rites, ceremonies and beliefs as upon the 
beams of the golden temple of Amon. At the bases of 
the columns in typical rigid attitude, colossal sphinxes 
with faces of mystery stare straight into the beyond. 
Symbolic Craftsmanship 
The walls of the auditorium show heroic bas-relief 
images from the Temple of Sety I at Abydos, the lioness- 
headed goddess, Sekhmet, symbol of the destructive rays 
of the sun bestowing her blessing and promise of good 
will upon her land. Then the image of the Pharoah Sety 
I offering to the gods a golden image of the Goddess of 

Truth and Justice, as 
an oath of the princi- 
ples which he will up- 
hold among his people. 
And then the seated 
figure of Maat, the 
Goddess of truth, 
holding on her knee 
the Ankh, the sign of 
everlasting life, and 
blindfold pads upon the 
eyes symbolizing her 
judgment of man by 
the evidence heard in- 
stead of being swayed 
by false appearances. 

The side balconies 
overhung with the pal- 
ace banners and the 
golden urns of the tem- 
ple soften the severity 
of the great walls of 
tinted stone. 

Furnishings of the 
orchestra are all of 
Egyptian design and 
decorated in green 
ippropriate figures in the 

bronze, copper and gold, with 
dull ancient colors. 

The overhanging alcove in the rear depicts the richness 
in antique design of temple ceilings with its rows upon 
rows of seated deities — suggesting the title the "Temple 
of a Million Blessings." 

And so in keeping with Mr. Grauman's policy that 
whenever and wherever possible, every attractive improve- 
ment should be added, I sincerely hope my description and 
explanations of the varied and beautiful decorative orna- 
ment, based upon many years of study of decorative arts 
of the ancients, and my earnest endeavor in the actual 
reproduction of some three hundred or more of the de- 
signs, will enable you and yours to more fully understand 


and enjoy this greatest of all achievements of the world 
of amusement, Grauman's Egyptian Theatre. 

A Traveler's Appreciation 

Saturated with the memories that have sprinkled man's 
mind ever since that time-dimmed age when the shep- 
herd kings raised the symbol of their power heside the 
Nile to displace the dynasties founded by Mene, Holly- 
wood's $800,000 film temple sends one's thoughts revert- 
ing down the misty corridors of achievement to a vision 
of Moses leading his Israelitish hosts through the watery 
aisle of the Red Sea, to the scenes in the days of Joseph 
and his faithless brethren, and, above all other recollec- 
tions, to the passionate love tryst that Antony kept with 
the fickle Cleopatra ere her deserting fleet brought about 
his ruin at the hands of Augustus Caesar, whose love the 
fair Egyptian siren schemed for in vain. 

One can look upon the hieroglyphics that stare forth 
from every nook and cranny, wall and ceiling of Grau- 

man's Hollywood theater and almost see the fondled asp 
sink its poisonous fangs in the soft bosom of the Nile's 
greatest vampire queen. 

And then, too, the mental eye may roam farther still 
and, after glimpsing the stern and sullen visage of the 
silent Sphinx, lead a psychic wanderer through the mazes 
of the Pyramids, w ith their memories of the mummified 
forms of Egypt's greatest kings. Then one comes to that 
blank wall beyond which the written record of man 
runneth not — that land of the vast unknown in which 
fabled Athis balanced the earth on his shoulders while 
the dust of prehistoric antiquity eddied about his feet. 

One of the principal features of the film temple which 
give added lustre to its beauty, is the variety of vivid 
colors used. The rich hues that made the land of the 
Pharoahs so romantic have been transplanted from that 
ancient realm to glorify the modern scenic beauty of 


TO eat a shoe is something of an achievement, but to 
eat a shoe artistically might be called a triumph. 
In what has been termed one of the cleverest bits of 
fun-making, calling tor real artistry, ever portrayed, you 
see Charlie Chaplin as the Lone Prospector, and Mack 
Swain as Big Jim McKay, blizzard-bound in the barren 
wastes of Alaska. 

Facing death by starvation, Charlie in desperation re- 
moves one of his big, worn-out shoes, and boils it w ith 
tender care. He serves it in typical Ritz style. 

The thought of eating a shoe is offensive, but the shad- 
ing of the subject, which so easily might be repulsive, is 
so deftly presented that you will remember this scene as a 
highlight of "The Gold Rush." 

THE quaint old white-haired character who does the 
clog dance in the dancehall scene in " The Gold 
Rush" is a famed centenarian member of Hollywood's 
moving picture extras' brigade. 

He is dadd] Taylor, and although he is one hundred 
years old, boasts of his youthful agility. Some of his 
stunts consist of shadow boxing, buck and wing dancing 
and turning cartwheels. He attracted Charlie Chaplin's 
attention while he was amusing the players on a set, and 
the master comedian immediately arranged a special bit 
for Daddy in the picture. 

Taylor is a Civil War veteran from Virginia, who, 
prior to fighting for the South, was a United States gov- 
ernment scout. His discharge papers attest to his age. 



THE following interesting little story about Charlie 
Chaplin is told by Alfred Reeves, his present gen- 
eral manager, who was also manager of the com- 
pany in which Chaplin appeared before he entered pic- 
tures. Mr. Reeves has known Charlie from his fifteenth 
birthday. He has seen Charlie Chaplin's father on the 
stage and pronounced him one of the most talented actors 

of his day. It is the period 
of 1910' of which Mr. 
Reeves speaks: 

"While we played in New 
York Charlie conceived the 
idea of utilizing his spare 
time away from the theatre 
in the making of picture com- 
edies. He outlined his idea 
to all the members of the 
company, thinking then that 
all we needed was a camera. 

"Charlie and myself, al- 
ways the best of friends, 
agreed at the time to put up 
one thousand dollars each for 
the purchase of a camera. We thought then that all we 
had to do was to play as in our vaudeville act, in the open 
air, and it would register on the screen. The idea of 
scenes made in short lengths, long shots and close-ups, and 
inserts being taken separately and later assembled was 
never dreamed of by us. The cutting of the film, in 
which Charlie has no equal, was never dreamed of by 
him then. 

"We entered into this agreement in all seriousness, but 
because our work took us away from New York, it was 
abandoned. But Charlie always carried the idea in his 
mind. Since then we have often wondered what the out- 
come would have been had we carried out the original 

On returning to England in the summer of 1912 we 
combined business with pleasure by playing the theatres 
of the Channel Islands. While playing the theatre on 
the Island of Jersey, there was a street parade and car- 
nival in progress and a news weekly cameraman recorded 
the event. 

"He was here, there and everywhere, but wherever he 
went a very pompous gentleman, who was apparently in 
charge of affairs, would always be found in front of the 
camera lens. He would shake hands with the local dig- 
nitaries and always turn away from them and face the 
camera as he did so. He might be termed the first 'cam- 
era hog.' Always would he bow and register his greet- 
ings to the camera while his guests stood in the back- 
ground, or off to one side. 

"Charlie was completely fascinated by this bit of busi- 
ness and told me then that some day he would put it in 
a picture. In an early picture of his — 'Kids Auto 
Races' — you will find the fulfillment of his resolve. 

"We returned to America shortly afterward on our 
second tour and while playing in Philadelphia, upon re- 
sponse to a wire from Kessel and Bauman, Charlie went 

to New York and there signed his first picture contract. 

"And so, contrary to the general idea that Charlie was 
discovered for pictures while playing in Los Angeles, 
Charlie arrived in California with a one-year picture con- 
tract in his pocket. The rest of Charlie's history is writ- 
ten by the children and himself." 

Not the least important of the players in "The Gold 
Rush" is a furry-coated actor who never changes his 

John Brown, who plays the role of himself, the big 
brown bear, was one member of the company on location 
who really levelled in the snow country. 

After spending his days and nights in Southern Cali- 
fornia, John Brown was taken up into the High Sierras 
and no sooner had he sniffed the mountain air than he ap- 
parently thought he had returned to the freedom of the 

For the first few days he was unmanageable and it was 
necessary to give him as much freedom as possible, as he 
sought to tear up his cage. A stockade was built for him, 
and for days, hour in and hour out, while the company 
was on location, he frolicked in the snow to his heart's 

On the days when he appeared before the camera, his 
happiness reached its zenith, as following each "take" he 
was turned loose and permitted to scamper off among the 
trees, to be recaptured only after much difficulty. 

Georgia invites Qcorgia asserts her 

Lonely to dance. independence. 

Ipnety seel^s companionship. 


Someone svd»- 
ftreat unawares. 

LoneJy segg j • 
^factor de p£t. 



Mutual suspicion. 

^gju^d bis claim. 

Lonely seeks 

The camp celebrates. 


A TWIST of the wrist has brought fame and for- 
tune to many a man, but it was a twist of the 
ankle that placed Georgia Hale, " The Girl, 
Georgia," in "The Gold Rush" in a position where the 
gates of stardom in pictures were opened unto her. 

Born in St. Joseph, Missouri, of English and French 
parents, Miss Hale spent most of her life in Chicago, 
where she studied voice and dancing, intending to make 
the stage her profession, but always with dreams of a 

moving picture ca- 
reer in California. 

Entering a Chica- 
go beauty pageant 
contest, in 19 2 2, 
Miss Hale's person- 
ality and charms 
won for her the hon- 
or of representing 
the Windy City in 
the Atlantic City na- 
tional contest a s 
"Miss Chicago." But 
best of all, she re- 
ceived a cash prize 
of $1, 250, which 
meant tin* realiza- 
tion of her dreams 
of a trip to Holly- 
wood. At Atlantic City she lost in the competition for 
the honor of "Miss America," and made ready for the 

(ii-:oR(;i.\ H.M.K 

journey to Hollywood. Arriving in the Cinema Capital 
in July, 192.?, Miss Hale got her first opportunity in 
doing a bit in a dancing scene, with a bright outlook for 
a real future. 

But Fate intervened when she fell and severely sprained 
her ankle. She was compelled to hobble on crutches for 
nearlv six months, and when her parents arrived in Cali- 
fornia at the end of this time, they found Georgia with 
only twelve dollars, still lame and very unhappy. 

Inspired by the timely arrival of her two sisters, her 
mother and father, she evidenced her courage by seeking 
work as an "extra." She accepted an offer to pose before 
the camera without salary in a picture being screened by 
Joseph Von Sternberg, titled "The Salvation Hunters." 
for the opinion of Charlie Chaplin and Douglas Fair- 

Opportunity had returned, for she immediately at- 
tracted the mention of the producers, and Charlie's en- 
thusiasn for her work in upholding the dramatic values 
of this picture encouraged Fairbanks to place her under 
contract. Chaplin did not forget her, and when he 
sought a leading lady for his great comedy-drama of 
Alaska, Miss Hale won over scores of aspirants for the 
honor of playing with the master comedian. 

Although the turned ankle represented a trick of fate 
that eventually brought her artistry to recognition, Miss 
Hale's capability as represented by her fortitude in the 
face of difficulties that would have plunged many a 
man in despair, is reflected in her triumphant delinea- 
tion of the dancehall heroine of "The Gold Rush." 

Big Jim McKay 

HAILED as "the funniest villain" for his role in 
" The Gold Rush," Mack Swain is a native of 
Salt Lake City, the son of Mormon pioneers. His 
middle name is Moroni, from the angel who blows the 
trumpet on the Mormon temple. His parents came 
to Salt Lake with Brigham Young's pioneer caravan, and 
his father, a stonemason, helped to build the famed temple. 

Mack started his histrionic 
career at the age of seven, 
when he emptied his pennv 
bank to pay a printer to 
make cards with the legend : 
"Mack Swain's Mammoth 
Minstrels," which he pre- 
sented in his father's barn. 
The "minstrels" proved a 
financial and artistic success, 
and Swain got the opportu- 
nity to develop his talents in 
Salt Lake amateur entertain- 
ments, in which he sang and 

At fifteen years he went 
on tour with the Martin Josey Minstrel show, and from 
this first step on the ladder, he served in every capacity 
from stage hand to being his own producer, and appeared 
in vaudeville, drama and musical comedy, with varied 
success as an actor, producer and manager. 

During an engagement in Chicago twenty-five years 
ago with the Kempton and Graves stock company, he 
married Cora King, the leading lady of the company, who 
resides with him in Hollywood. 

Swain entered pictures as a member of the old Key- 
stone Comedy company in 1913, at about the same time 
Charlie Chaplin joined the organization. They appeared 
together in almost all the early Keystone comedies and a 
great friendship between the two has existed ever since. 

From the camaraderie engendered by their mutual en- 
trance into "the pictures" years ago came a perfect under- 
standing that has operated to the advantage of both in 
their relations since on and off the studio lot. 

Having been associated with the stage since his earliest 
youth, Swain has made a life-study of appealing to the 
risibilities of audiences, and has been identified with the 
development of comedy as an art from the early custard- 
pie one and two reelers to the master comedian's epoch 
marking comedy-drama, "The Gold Rush," in ten expan- 
sive parts. 

Mack, who weighs nearly 300 pounds, will be remem- 
bered in the oldtime comedies by moving picture fans as 
"Ambrose," the lovesick youth. P. S. Morrison, a cinema 
critic of the early days, gave him the cognomen. Swain 
was featured in such favorite oldtimers as "His Trysting 
Place," "His Musical Career," and "Caught in the Rain." 
His outstanding success with Chaplin was "Tillie's Punc- 
tured Romance." 

He voices the belief that his greatest role is as Big 
Jim McKay in "The Gold Rush." 

ARTISTS in all lines answer to the call of the films. 
Henry Bergman, a native son of San Francisco, 
was well known to the opera stage when he started play- 
ing before the silver sheet. 

Taken to Germany as a child by 
his parents, he returned to America in 
1883, a tenor singer of note with the 
Metropolitan Grand Opera company. 

Nine years with the Augustin Daly 
Musical Comedy company followed 
in which he appeared in such old fa- 
vorites as "The Runaway Girl," "San 
Toy," "The Country Girl," and 
"Cingalee." He played for three sea- 
sons in the Ziegfeld Follies and was 
also with Blanche Ring in "The 
Y ankee Girl." He has appeared in 
all of Chaplin's comedies for the last ten years. 

Hank Curtis 

THE engineering profession lost a promising disciple 
when Malcolm Waite by chance was introduced 
to the motion picture industry. 

Waite, who was born in Menominee, Michigan, 32 
years ago, had outlined for himself 
a career in engineering. He started 
in technical schools and completed his 
instruction in the MacKenzie school 
at Dobb's Ferry, New York. 

While on a visit to Hollywood in 
Um 1924, at the request of his friend. 
Jack Pickford, he appeared with the 
■dffki— rflPi^ later a picture. That experience 
^■^^^B marked the end of his prospective en- 

MALCOLM WAITE gineering career. Later he played 
jntk Cameron with Mary Pickford as "Perkins" in 

"Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall," 
although his first large part is in "The Gold Rush." 

Avaudevillian who frequently forsakes his villian roles 
for the silver sheet to rub on burnt cork again is 
Tom Murray, stage veteran known throughout the world. 
Born in Harrisburg, Illinois, Murray 32 years ago 
first appeared in vaudeville, with Earl 
Gillihan as his partner. The act of 
Gillihan & Murray has played in 
every English speaking part of the 
world. And today between pictures 
they step out to do their old blackface 
song and dance act, (the only addition 
being that Tom now plays his own ac- 
companiments on the ukelele.) 

He entered pictures eleven years 
ago with the Eagle Film company in 
Jacksonville, Florida. He played first 
on the Coast with Jackie Coogan in 
"My Boy." His appearance in "The Gold Rush" is hi-- 
second picture with Charlie Chaplin, he having appeared 
as the deacon in "The Pilgrim." 

Black I.arsen 

OlGRAUnWi Founder. SID fiRAUmBN managing Director 



Manager for Mr. Grauman Sam Myers 

Musical Director Gino Severi 

Technical Director George OrMSTON 

Publicity Director Harry Hammond Beau. 

Assistant Publicity Director Robert M. Finch 

Art Director George E. Hoi.i. 

Superintendent H. RusSELL Stimmel 

Exploitation George Arthur Bovyer 

Librarian Orris Lusher 

Scenic Artist Frederick Robinson 

Stage Carpenter WlLUAM Davies 

Chief Electrician George M. Smith 

Chief Projectionist E. W. Apperson 

Organist Julius K. Johnson 

Auditor C. W. Snell 

Treasurer John T. McGuire 

Assistant Treasurer G. O. McDougall 

Assistant Treasurer B. B. Mallicoat 

Assistant 'Treasurer Cliff Bernard 

(At Barker Bros.) 

Assistant 'Treasurer Fred Hay.MAN 

(At Wurlitzer Co.) 

Sid Grauman Visits Charlie Chaplix on Location 


Di.GRAumAN (ouncer. SIO GRflUmAN. managing Director 




Every Afternoon 2:15 o'clock. 

Every Evening 8:15 o'clock 


Evening Pricks 
$1.00, $1.50 

Matinee Prices 

50c, 75c, $1.00, Monday to Friday 
75c, $1.00, Saturday and Sunday 

Holiday Matinees, Evening Prices Prevail. 
U. S. Excise Tax Additional 

Box office open daily from 10 a. m. to 10 p. m. Seats 
on sale at box office two weeks in advance. Mail or- 
ders sent in previously will be tilled day sale opens. 
Seats ordered in advance by telephone, or at box office 
in person, or by mail, will be held until 1:15 for mat- 
inees and 7:15 for evening performances. Paid res- 
ervations will, of course, be held indefinitely. For spe- 
cial convenience of Los Angeles patrons, downtown 
box offices are maintained at Barker Bros.., 724 South 
Broadway, in music department, and at Wurlitzer Co., 
814 South Broadway. Open daily from 9 a. m. to 5 
p. m. Special Sunday and Holiday box office main- 
tained at Wurlitzer's.